Exclusion Zone Set Up Around Indonesia’s Anak Krakatau (Child of Krakatoa)

By MARK DUNPHY – Fri Oct 07, 2011

On July 31, 2011, a wispy ash plume rose above the volcano and drifted west (up in the below image). The natural-colour satellite image was acquired by the Advanced Land Imager (ALI) aboard Earth Observing-1 (EO-1). Dark gray areas of Anak Krakatau are composed principally of lava flows deposited in the 1970s, ’80s, and ’90s. These flows are topped by a young cinder cone near the center of the island. Green vegetation covers older lavas along the eastern coastline.  Image NASA. Instrument:  EO-1 – ALI

On July 31, 2011, a wispy ash plume rose above the volcano and drifted west (up in the below image). The natural-colour satellite image was acquired by the Advanced Land Imager (ALI) aboard Earth Observing-1 (EO-1). Dark gray areas of Anak Krakatau are composed principally of lava flows deposited in the 1970s, ’80s, and ’90s. These flows are topped by a young cinder cone near the center of the island. Green vegetation covers older lavas along the eastern coastline. Image NASA. Instrument: EO-1 – ALI

Anak Krakatau’s alert level has been raised to the second-highest level after the number of volcanic tremors soared from 200 a day to 7,200.  A 2-kilometre exclusion zone has also been established around the Indonesian volcano prohibiting tourists and fishermen from getting close to the volcanic island, located in the Sunda Strait between the islands of Java and Sumatra in Indonesia.

Indonesia’s Volcanology and Geology Disaster Mitigation Centre has expressed concern that an eruption could send incandescent rocks down its slopes and a considerable distance into surrounding waters.  The Center indicated, however, that a major eruption like that experienced in 1883 is unlikely.

Anak Krakatau, which is Indonesian for ‘Child of Krakatoa’, erupted briefly on Tuesday sending columns of ash and rock hurtling high into the air. The eruption was the biggest since January 2011 when ash was emitted more than 600 m into the air, forcing the evacuation of tens of thousands of residents. The volcano also erupted on 29th October 2010 leading Indonesian authorities to issue a level 2 alert.

The island exploded in 1883, killing approximately 40,000 people, although some estimates put the death toll much higher. The explosion is considered to be the loudest sound ever heard in modern history, with reports of it being heard nearly 3,000 miles (4,800 km) from its point of origin. The shock wave from the explosion was recorded on barographs around the globe.

http://www.irishweatheronline.com/news/earth-science/geology/exclusion-zone-set-up-around-indonesias-anak-krakatau-child-of-krakatoa/41012.html

Could The Sun Set Off The Next Big Natural Disaster?

It can take a long time to clean up from natural disasters. New Orleans still had remnants of Katrina damage years after the storm barreled through. Hundreds of thousands of people are still homelessin Haiti, more than a year and a half after its earthquake. Areas of Japan may be off limits for yearsdue to the earthquake/tsunami/nuclear disaster at Fukushima.

But as bad as these events might be, they are at least limited geographically. But that probably won’t be true when it comes to a severe solar storm, say scientists in a new study in Space Weather. Before I go into that, though, let’s first review what I mean by solar storms. These are explosions on the Sun that send energized particles out into space. If Earth is in the way of a mild outburst, we get pretty auroras at the poles. But more violent events can have bigger impacts, as Robert Irion noted earlier this year in his Smithsonian story “Something New Under the Sun“:

The most intense solar storm ever recorded struck in the summer of 1859. British astronomer Richard Carrington observed a giant network of sunspots on September 1, followed by the most intense flare ever reported. Within 18 hours, Earth was under magnetic siege. Dazzling northern lights glowed as far south as the Caribbean Sea and Mexico, and sparking wires shut down telegraph networks—the Internet of the day—across Europe and North America.

A magnetic storm in 1921 knocked out the signaling system for New York City’s rail lines. A solar storm in March 1989 crippled the power grid in Quebec, depriving millions of customers of electricity for nine hours. And in 2003, a series of storms caused blackouts in Sweden, destroyed a $640 million Japanese science satellite and forced airlines to divert flights away from the North Pole at a cost of $10,000 to $100,000 each.

Our modern, globally connected electronic society is now so reliant on far-flung transformers and swarms of satellites that a major blast from the Sun could bring much of it down. According to a 2008 report from the National Research Council, a solar storm the size of the 1859 or 1921 events could zap satellites, disable communication networks and GPS systems and fry power grids at a cost of $1 trillion or more.

These storms are getting more attention in recent months because the Sun has left its solar minimum—its time of least activity—and there are still three to five years until it reaches solar maximum. And although a host of satellites are now watching the Sun, leading to new insight into its activity and, eventually, better warnings of devastating storms, our technological society is stilldisturbingly vulnerable.

Back to the Space Weather study: Researchers from UCLA and elsewhere used simulations of solar storms to examine what would happen to the Earth’s inner radiation belt, a region of charged particles that surrounds the planet and acts as a buffer against radiation. They found that a storm the intensity of the 2003 event would halve the thickness of the radiation belt and one the size of the 1859 event would nearly wipe it out. And that would just be the beginning of the problem, New Scientist explains:

In the absence of the cloud, electromagnetic waves [would accelerate] large numbers of electrons to high speed in Earth’s inner radiation belt, causing a huge increase in radiation there. The inner radiation belt is densest at about 3000 kilometres above Earth’s equator, which is higher than low-Earth orbit. But the belt hugs Earth more tightly above high latitude regions, overlapping with satellites in low-Earth orbit.

Speeding electrons [would] cause electric charge to accumulate on satellite electronics, prompting sparks and damage. Increasing the number of speeding electrons would drastically shorten the lifetime of a typical satellite, the team calculates.

The satellite-damaging radiation could hang around for a decade, the scientists say. In addition, the radiation could also be hazardous for astronauts and equipment on the International Space Station.

 

http://blogs.smithsonianmag.com/science/2011/09/could-the-sun-set-off-the-next-big-natural-disaster/

 

 

Strong solar flare could unleash nuclear holocaust across the planet

September 13, 2011 – TOKYO – The real threat to human civilization is far more mundane, and it’s right in front of our noses. If Fukushima has taught us anything, it’s that just one runaway meltdown of fissionable nuclear material can have wide-ranging and potentially devastating consequences for life on Earth. To date, Fukushima has already released 168 times the total radiation released from the Hiroshima nuclear bomb detonated in 1945, and the Fukushima catastrophe is now undeniably the worst nuclear disaster in the history of human civilization. But what if human civilization faced a far greater threat than a single tsunami destroying a nuclear power facility? What if a global tidal wave could destroy the power generating capacities of all the world’s power plants, all at once? Such a scenario is not merely possible, but factually inevitable. And the global tidal wave threatening all the nuclear power plants of the world isn’t made of water but solar emissions. The Sun, you see, is acting up again. NASA recently warned that solar activity is surging, with a peak expected to happen in 2013 that could generate enormous radiation levels that sweep across planet Earth. The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) has even issued an urgent warning about solar flares due to strike in 2012 and 2013. IBtimes wrote, “With solar activity expected to peak around 2013, the Sun is entering a particularly active time and big flares like the recent one will likely be common during the next few years. …A major flare in the mid-19th century blocked the nascent telegraph system, and some scientists believe that another such event is now overdue.”
Several federal government studies suggest that this extreme solar activity and emissions may result in complete blackouts for years in some areas of the nation. Moreover, there may also be disruption of power supply for years, or even decades, as geomagnetic currents attracted by the storm could debilitate the transformers.” Every nuclear power plant operates in a near-meltdown state. All nuclear power plants are operated in a near-meltdown status. They operate at very high heat, relying on nuclear fission to boil water that produces steam to drive the turbines that generate electricity. Critically, the nuclear fuel is prevented from melting down through the steady circulation of coolants which are pushed through the cooling system using very high powered electric pumps. If you stop the electric pumps, the coolant stops flowing and the fuel rods go critical (and then melt down). This is what happened in Fukushima, where the melted fuel rods dropped through the concrete floor of the containment vessels, unleashing enormous quantities of ionizing radiation into the surrounding environment. The full extent of the Fukushima contamination is not even known yet, as the facility is still emitting radiation. It’s crucial to understand that nuclear coolant pumps are usually driven by power from the electrical grid. They are not normally driven by power generated locally from the nuclear power plant itself. Instead, they’re connected to the grid. In other words, even though nuclear power plants are generating megawatts of electricity for the grid, they are also dependant on the grid to run their own coolant pumps. If the grid goes down, the coolant pumps go down, too, which is why they are quickly switched to emergency backup power — either generators or batteries. –Natural News

http://theextinctionprotocol.wordpress.com/2011/09/13/strong-solar-flare-could-unleash-nuclear-holocaust-across-the-planet/

GEOMAGNETIC STORM:Solar winds from coronal hole lash Earth

Posted on April 30, 2011 by The Extinction Protocol

     

GEOMAGNETIC STORM: A solar wind stream hit Earth’s magnetic field during the early hours of April 30th, sparking a high-latitude geomagnetic storm (slowly subsiding). In the United States, auroras descended as far south as Marquette, Michigan. Earth is inside a solar wind stream flowing from the indicated coronal hole. The solar wind speed is high and gusty, and NOAA forecasters estimate a 40% chance of more geomagnetic activity during the next 24 hours. –Space Weather

http://theextinctionprotocol.wordpress.com/2011/04/30/solar-winds-from-coronal-hole-lash-earth-in-geomagnetic-storm/

CORONAL HOLE : Solar Watch

NASA’s Solar Dynamics Observatory is monitoring a hole in the sun’s atmosphere–a “coronal hole.” It is the dark region circled in this extreme ultraviolet image taken during the early hours of April 28th:


Above: A composite 171-193-211 Angstrom EUV image from SDO. April 28 @ 06:28 UT

Coronal holes are places where the sun’s magnetic field opens up and allows the solar wind to escape. A stream of solar wind flowing from this coronal hole is expected to reach Earth on April 30th-May 1st. NOAA forecasters estimate a 35% chance of geomagnetic activity at that time.

http://www.spaceweather.com/

Are we headed for a solar doomsday in 2012?

April 26, 2011 – FLORIDA – Could a super-storm generated by the sun destroy civilization as we know it in 2012? No less than NASA thinks it’s a distinct possibility. In a remarkable move the normally conservative US space agency has taken the extraordinary step of warning the world. The headlines reverberating around the world speak volumes: ‘Leaks discovered in Earth’s magnetic field,’ Solar storms to wreak havoc,’ ‘The end of life as we know it,’ ‘Magnetic shift to cause global super-storms. Can such things really happen? NASA and the European Space Agency say yes. Among all the countries with exposure to the solar devastation, the United States is the most susceptible. As The Daily Telegraph recently observed: “National power grids could overheat and air travel severely disrupted while electronic items, navigation devices and major satellites could stop working after the Sun reaches its maximum power…” Experts on the sun are very concerned as they see the sun awaking from its unusually long slumber with a violence unseen for generations. That violence could be in the form of mammoth magnetic storms. Those storms hitting the Earth will be like a giant’s fist slamming into the fragile electronic technology that runs the world. Hurricanes, earthquakes and tsunamis pale by comparison. “We know it is coming but we don’t know how bad it is going to be,” Dr Richard Fisher, the director of NASA’s Heliophysics division, said in an interview with The Daily Telegraph. “It will disrupt communication devices such as satellites and car navigation, air travel, the banking system, our computers, everything that is electronic. It will cause major problems for the world. “A menacing electronic Doomsday. A giant solar super-storm would lead to martial law, mass starvation and eventual societal collapse. “Systems will just not work. The flares change the magnetic field on the earth that is rapid and like a lightning bolt. That is the solar affect,” Fisher added. Since the sun’s last upheaval caused worldwide disruption and destruction in 1859, civilization has rapidly advanced a society based on a technological infrastructure that can be whisked away in moments by a severe geomagnetic storm. During 2008, the National Academy of Sciences issued a dire report: “Severe Space Weather Events—Societal and Economic Impacts.” The report outlined, in excruciating detail, the potential demise of America’s 21st Century technological base. Cities will be left without light and water and food will run out. Civil unrest will surge as society collapses in a matter of days. The US federal and state governments will be hard-pressed to restore order amongst 300 million people as mass starvation sets in and sources of fresh water dwindle. One billion could die. –Helium

http://theextinctionprotocol.wordpress.com/2011/04/26/are-we-headed-for-solar-doomsday-in-2012/

Pacific Ring of Fire growing more active – volcanic arcs/trenches awakening | The Extinction Protocol: 2012 and beyond

Pacific Ring of Fire growing more active – volcanic arcs/trenches awakening | The Extinction Protocol: 2012 and beyond.

 

 April 16, 2011NEW ZEALAND – At least five countries located on the Pacific Ring of Fire have experienced earthquakes greater than a magnitude of 5 over the past 24 hours. A 5.4 magnitude earthquake hit north-eastern Australia on Saturday afternoon. The United States Geological Survey (USGS) said the quake took place at 3.30pm local time (0530 GMT) about 124 kilometres southeast of Townsville, Queensland. The quake was measured at a depth of 10 kilometres.  Queensland was hit by another 5.4 magnitude quake on 16 March last. Meanwhile, Christchurch in New Zealand has been hit by more aftershocks this afternoon, leaving several parts of the city without power. The strongest of the tremors measured 5.2 on the Richter scale. The country’s second largest city was hit by a 6.3 magnitude earthquake in February. 181 people were killed. Elsewhere, Japan was rattled by a 5.9 magnitude aftershock on Saturday afternoon but there were no initial reports of damage and no risk of a tsunami. Taiwan was hit by a quake measuring 5.8 on the Richter Scale.  The quake struck 220km east of Keelung City. Tonga, an archipelago in the South Pacific Ocean, also experienced a 5.7 magnitude earthquake last night. The “Ring of Fire” is an arc stretching from New Zealand, along the eastern edge of Asia, north across the Aleutian Islands of Alaska, and south along the coast of North and South America. The Ring of Fire is composed over 75% of the world’s active and dormant volcanoes. –Irish Weather