Lava and ash spew from Mt Etna flights redirected

 

Lava and ash spewing out of a crater of the giant Etna volcano in southern Italy forced the closure of nearby Catania airport, ANSA news agency said late Sunday. With a high risk of volcanic ash being blown onto the runways, the airport was closed for safety reasons and flights redirected to nearby Palermo. It is the volcano’s 17th eruptive activity since the start of the year.

http://hisz.rsoe.hu/alertmap/site/?pageid=event_desc&edis_id=VE-20111024-32802-ITA

Turkey earthquake: Desperate search for survivors

Rescue teams are desperately
searching for people trapped under rubble after a strong earthquake hit Turkey’s
eastern Van region on Sunday.

More than 200 people died and 1,000 were injured in the 7.2 magnitude quake,
many of them in the town of Ercis, where dozens of buildings fell.

Tens of thousands have been sleeping outside in freezing conditions.

The death toll is expected to rise in the coming hours. PM Recep Tayyip
Erdogan has been visiting the area.

Turkey is particularly vulnerable to earthquakes because it sits on major
geological fault lines.

Two earthquakes in 1999 with a magnitude of more than 7 killed almost 20,000
people in densely populated parts of the north-west of the country.

The earthquake struck at 13:41 (10:41 GMT) at a depth of 20km (12.4 miles),
with its epicentre 16km north-east of Van in eastern Turkey, the US Geological Survey said.

It was followed by a series of powerful aftershocks, also centred north of
Van, including two of magnitude 5.6 soon after the quake and one of 6.0 late on
Sunday.

‘Screams for help’

Mr Erdogan has been visiting the affected area by
helicopter.

He said that villages close to Van were the worst affected as most buildings
there were made of clay bricks.

The prime minister thanked other countries for their offers of help but said
Turkey could cope with the disaster on its own.

Up to 80 buildings, including a dormitory, collapsed in the town of Ercis,
about 60km north of Van, while 10 fell in Van itself.

Town mayor Zulfikar Arapoglu appealed for help. “We need urgent aid, we need
medics,” he said.

Ambulances, soldiers and rescue teams rushed to the town, a Reuters
photographer reported from Ercis.

Survivors complained of a lack of heavy machinery to remove chunks of cement
floors that had pancaked on to each other, the Associated Press reports.

Serious damage and casualties were also reported in the district of
Celebibag, near Ercis.

“There are many people under the rubble,” said the local mayor, Veysel
Keser.

“People are in agony, we can hear their screams for help. We need urgent
help.”

The head of Turkey’s seismology institute said hundreds of people could have
been killed.

“We estimate around 1,000 buildings are damaged and our estimate is for
hundreds of lives lost – it could be 500 or 1,000,” said Mustafa Erdik of the
Kandilli Observatory.

Read More: http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-europe-15425268

Characteristics and possible evolution of the eruption in El Hierro

On this island, a volcanic eruption occurs fissure and surtseyana type. The volcanic materials could be found taquilitas.

Underwater volcanic eruption continues off the coast of South El Hierro. Eruptive focus closer to the surface of the sea it was located about 150 meters deep. The result of the shallowness on Saturday October 15 began to see the first magmatic material at the sea surface, but stopped a few days after coming to the surface, presumably because the eruptive mouth closed.

The eruption of El Hierro launched at sea pyroclastic

These pyroclastic materials collected by the ships that have come to the point eruption and even coastal areas south of the island rocks are composed of two distinct visually.

Characteristics of the materials recovered from the eruption magmatic

These pyroclasts were formed out of lava 150 meters deep and 2.4 kilometers from the coast El Hierro. On the outside are black and round or oval shaped, but inside is a white, porous material, full of gas bubbles formed by the magma dragged from deeper zones.
The dark material is, according to a preliminary study of non-tip, a taquilita. This type of rock is a volcanic glass formed after rapid cooling of basaltic magma. As for the white material needed more comprehensive analysis.

What kind of volcanic eruption is El Hierro

In addition, the volcanic eruption of El Hierro is fissural type, which means that the lava does go outside along a fracture that can break the surface along a fissure or opening several more or less aligned mouths .

And that is the underwater eruption that takes place on the island of El Hierro appears to have several sources. According to official information would be at least three places that have gone lava and gases.

The lava eruptions of this type of flow with relative ease, ie that are not highly viscous lavas and are not in their composition a high percentage of silica. Basic lavas would.

Surtseyana eruption in El Hierro, the four phases

Also described the surtseyana like rash, by the eruption of Surtsey Island in Iceland. However, in this case the name refers to a volcanic eruption under water near the sea surface and this name affect the eruptive mouths found in shallower waters. The deeper pockets of the underwater eruption does not fall under this denomination.

These eruptions are characterized by four distinct phases. In the first volcanic materials are sea surface as bubbles of lava. Then appear a white column of steam to be followed by explosions caused by the underwater volcano and acquire darker shades. In the fourth stage would form a small island where there would be a fountain of lava that would expand until it ceased to exit.

In the current situation shallower focus of eruptive fissure eruption of El Hierro , which was located about 150 meters deep according to the information given by the PEVOLCA, seems to have closed, although the eruption may continue in deeper areas Building island of El Hierro. However, the volcanic tremor continued on CHIE seismic station that could precisely target the lava is coming out somewhere.

Possible evolution of the volcanic eruption in El Hierro

Thus, the published data on this volcanic phenomenon, although difficult to predict the possible evolution glimpse. The volcanic eruption of El Hierro could be stopped at any time, although in view of the deformation on the island is not expected to be the case in the short term.

It could also continue the rash known foci and in the case of the shallowest, and after passing through the phases of the eruption surtseyana, become an island, but for this last step came to an end would require a large input of magma from below.

If the contribution of magma is higher than the amount of lava that comes out of the different foci or if one of these will be closed for any reason, then it can happen that will open new eruptive mouths, either at sea or on land. If this happened in the sea in shallow areas may be mentioned earlier phases of the eruption surtseyana .

How could last eruption of El Hierro

In any case, the data of deformation and earthquakes in El Hierro which records the IGN, they have not stopped, at least reflect the geological process continues its course, and even may point to the arrival of more magma beneath the island. As for the duration of the volcanic phenomenon , David Calvo, non-tip, aimed at RTVE that could be extended in time but the important thing is the observation and monitoring of underwater eruption near the island to be opened from other sources if any.

Translated by Google. Written by Daniel Martin

http://www.suite101.net/news/caracteristicas-y-posible-evolucion-de-la-erupcion-en-el-hierro-a69990

Shiveluch in violent eruption

Shiveluch volcano. © Photo: ru.wikipedia.org/NASA/JSC

Reports speak of a violent volcanic eruption of Mount Shiveluch on Russia’s Far Eastern Kamchatka Peninsula.

Smoke and ash from the volcano have climbed to 10 kilometres, sparking no-fly warnings for the surrounding area. Snow around the crater is rapidly melting, creating mudslides.

Shiveluch supports a caldera of 1.5 kilometres in diameter. Its current activity period started in 1980.

http://english.ruvr.ru/2011/10/16/58828158.html

Red Alert Issued In El Hierro Town As Underwater Volcano Erupts

El Hierro. Google Maps

Spain’s Instituto Geográfico Nacional (IGN) confirmed on Tuesday that an underwater eruption has occurred five kilomtres off the southern coastline of El Hierro, the smallest of the Canary Island. The eruption is Spain’s first since the eruption in 1971 of the Teneguía volcano on the island of La Palma (Canary Islands).

The IGN says all three of its seismic stations on El Hierro in the Canary Islands have registered a volcanic tremor of low frequency in the south of the island at La Restinga, the southern-most village in the Canaries.  The estimated 537 residents of the town were summonsed to a local football field on Tuesday afternoon to be briefed on evacuation procedures.

A Red Alert has since been issued by local authorities for the town. A notice posted on the Emergencia El Hierro website on Tuesday evening stated: “Phase pre-eruptive. It involves the initiation of a preventive evacuation. Make yourself available to the authorities.”

Scientists from IGN and CSIC (Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas), meanwhile, have conducted a reconnaissance flight over the sea to the area south of the island, where they have located dead fish floating on the surface five kilometres from the coast. The dead fish were identified in an area where lower seismic magnitude occurred on October 9, at a depth of approximately 2 km.

The present volcanic activity is understood to be occurring at a depth of 600 metres (just under one kilometre) below sea level, in the Las Calmas sea.

Scientists from IGN, CSIC and the University of Cadiz have established their monitoring base at La Restinga. Efforts are underway to determine if the subsea volcanic vent is widening and if so, in which direction (away or toward El Hierro).

Initial reports of the eruption were received from crews on board four separate ships. Local media agency Canarias7 reported on Monday that Government authorities have suspended ferry activities to and from the 285 square-kilometre island.

English language newspaper  islandconnections.eu reported: “The martime chief for the province of Santa Cruz de Tenerife Antonio Padrón has issued a recomendation that boats should not sail closer than four miles off El Hierro. Divers have also been told to suspend all activities.”

The eruption takes place amidst an unprecedented earthquake swarm in El Hierro. The number of earthquakes recorded since July 17, 2011 on El Hierro has now exceeded 10,000.

Hierro, a shield volcano, has had a single historic eruption from the Volcan de Lomo Negro vent in 1793. The eruption lasted approximately one month and produced lava flows.

The recent surge in the number and intensity of earthquakes prompted officials from the IGN and The Canary Islands Government to raise the alert level for the Hierro volcano to ‘Yellow’ late last month. The alert remained in place on Monday, but the estimated 11,000 residents of El Hierro were being reassured not to be alarmed.

The majority of the earthquake activity shifted from El Golfo in the island’s northwest to beneath the Las Calmas Sea in the south earlier this month. Surface deformations exceeding 35mm have also been recorded on the island in recent weeks.

Evacuations

A dramatic rise in recorded earthquakes on El Hierro prompted officials to evacuate some local residents, shut El Hierro’s main tunnel, and close local schools on 27 September.

The Spanish Civil Guard (Guardia Civil) advised almost 50 residents of the municipality of La Frontera to leave their homes because of landslide fears. Two units of the Spanish military’s emergency intervention unit (EMU) were also placed on standby to depart the nearby island of Tenerife to assist in the possible evacuation of hundreds of other El Hierro residents.

Meanwhile, the island’s main tunnel (Tunel del Golfo), which links Frontera to Valverde, was shut forcing motorists to travel across the 280-sq-km island via a mountain road. The Cabildo de El Hierro also ordered the closure of schools.

Read more: http://www.irishweatheronline.com/news/earth-science/geology/red-alert-issued-in-el-hierro-town-as-underwater-volcano-erupts/41346.html

 

 

Earthquakes at El Hierro almost at 10,000 and Magma moving upwards

Friday, 07 October, 2011 at 17:12 UTC

The number of earthquakes recorded since July 17 , 2011 on El Hierro, the smallest of The Canary Islands, has almost reached 10,000, the Instituto Geografico Nacional (IGN) reported on Friday. The IGN also confirmed surface deformations exceeding 35mm on the 280-sqkm island, where residents have been put on alert for a possible volcanic eruption. The agency confirmed on Friday that 858 earthquakes, most of them located in the sea to the SW of the island, have been recorded in the 7 days since 30 September, 2011. During this period, 60 earthquakes were felt by the island’s estimated 10,000 residents. The strongest of the tremors measured 3.8 magnitude on the Richter Scale. Since 17 July, 9639 earthquakes with epicentres both North and South of the NW Ridge and depths between 10 and 15 km have been recorded. Hierro, a shield volcano, has had a single historic eruption from the Volcan de Lomo Negro vent in 1793. The eruption lasted approximately one month and produced lava flows. The recent surge in the number and intensity of earthquakes prompted officials from the IGN and The Canary Islands Government to raise the alert level for the Hierro volcano to ‘Yellow’ late last month. The alert remained in place on Friday. Seismologists say the majority of the earthquake activity has shifted from El Golfo in the island’s northwest to beneath the Las Calmas Sea in the south.

However, magma is now on the move upwards while the depth of earthquakes has become increasingly shallow in recent days with most being recorded at a depth of 9 to 14 kilometres. Movement of magma towards the surface signifies that a volcanic eruption is likely to happen, but the timing of such remains unclear. Volcanologist Juan Carlos Carracedo last week suggested that an eruption on El Hierro would “not be a major surprise”. He explained: “It is the youngest of the Canary Islands. There is a ball of magma which is rising to the surface and it is stationed at the limit of the earth’s crust. At the moment we do not know if that ball of magna will break the crust and cause an eruption.” IGN Director, María José Blanco said that any eruption on El Hierro would most likely have a “low explosion value”. A dramatic rise in recorded earthquakes on El Hierro last week prompted officials to evacuate some local residents, shut El Hierro’s main tunnel, and close local schools. The Spanish Civil Guard (Guardia Civil) advised almost 50 residents of the municipality of La Frontera to leave their homes because of landslide fears. Two units of the Spanish military’s emergency intervention unit (EMU) were also placed on standby to depart the nearby island of Tenerife to assist in the possible evacuation of hundreds of other El Hierro residents. Meanwhile, the island’s main tunnel (Tunel del Golfo), which links Frontera to Valverde, was shut forcing motorists to travel across the 280-sq-km island via a mountain road. The Cabildo de El Hierro also ordered the closure of schools.

El Hierro is situated in the most southwestern extreme of the Canaries. The island was formed after three successive eruptions, and consequent accumulations, the island emerged from the ocean as an imposing triangular pyramid crowned by a volcano more than 2,000 metres high. The volcanic activity, principally at the convergence of the three ridges, resulted in the continual expansion of the island. A mere 50,000 years ago, as a result of seismic tremors which produced massive landslides, a giant piece of the island cracked off, crashed down into the ocean and scattered along the seabed. This landslide of more than 300km3 gave rise to the impressive amphitheatre of the El Golfo valley and at the same time caused a tsunami that most likely rose over 100 metres high and probably reached as far as the American coast. According to ElHierro.com: “Although over 200 years have elapsed since the last eruption, El Hierro has the largest number of volcanoes in the Canaries with over 500 open sky cones, another 300 covered by the most recent outflows, and some 70 caves and volcanic galleries, notably the Don Justo cave whose collection of channels surpasses 6km in length.” El Hierro is located south of Isla de la Palma (population 86,000), currently the most volcanically active of the Canary Islands. About a half a million years ago, the volcano, Taburiente, collapsed with a giant landslide, forming the Caldera de Taburiente. Since the Spanish occupation, there have been seven eruptions.

http://hisz.rsoe.hu/alertmap/site/?pageid=event_update_read&edis_id=EQ-20110824-32077-SPI&uid=11509

Health Defects Found In Children Living Near Quake-Stricken Fukushima Prefecture

The Fukushima plants, which were severly damaged by a mag 9 quake on March 11

The Fukushima plants, which were severly damaged by a mag 9 quake on March 11

Thyroid gland irregularities have been detected in a number of young children and teenagers evacuated from Japan’s Fukushima Prefecture following its nuclear plant crisis.

According to a study, 10 out of 130 children evacuated from Fukushima Prefecture showed hormonal and other irregularities in their thyroid glands, the Kyodo news agency reported. The investigation was done by a charity dedicated to help victims of the 1986 Chernobyl nuclear accident.

The Japan Chernobyl Foundation, which is based in Japan’s Nagano Prefecture, carried out the study in cooperation with the Shinshu University Hospital, taking blood and urine samples from individuals up to 16 years old and infants as young as one month old.

The tests took place through the end of August in Chino, Nagano, where the children were housed temporarily following their evacuation from Fukushima, where the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant was crippled and caused the country’s ongoing nuclear crisis.

The study revealed that one child had a thyroid hormone level lower than normal while seven had above average thyroid stimulation hormone levels. In addition, two of the tested youths were diagnosed with slightly high blood concentrations of a protein called thyroglobulin, possibly caused by damage to their thyroid glands.

However, Japan Chernobyl Foundation chief Minoru Kamata underlined that no clear link was found between the radiation released from the nuclear plant and the children’s health condition. Nonetheless, Minoru stressed that long-term observation is necessary and key to finding any possible impact on human health due to the nuclear crisis.

Last Friday, the government of Japan lifted its evacuation advisory in certain areas within a 20 to 30 kilometer (12.4 to 18.6 mile) radius from the crippled Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant. The lifted advisory had covered the entire towns of Hirono and Naraha, the village of Kawauchi, and parts of Minamisomo and Tamura, all located in Japan’s Fukushima Prefecture which was hit hard by the earthquake, tsunami, and nuclear crisis.

Also last Friday, plutonium was detected at six locations in Fukushima Prefecture, including in the village of Iitate which is located about 45 kilometers (28 miles) northwest of the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant.

Japanese science ministry official said the plutonium was detected as a result of the nuclear crisis at the Fukushima plant. This was the first time the government confirmed the spread of plutonium to the village. However, officials said the amount of detected plutonium was low and poses no danger to health.

Japan has been facing an ongoing nuclear crisis since the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant was severely damaged on March 11 when a 9.0-magnitude earthquake and a subsequent tsunami devastated the country. The disaster disabled the cooling systems of the plant and radioactive elements leaked into the sea and were later found in water, air and food products in some parts of Japan.

At least 15,813 people were killed as a result of the earthquake and tsunami while 3,971 others remain missing. There are still more than 88,000 people who are staying in shelters in 21 prefectures around Japan.

By PAUL VAUGHAN – Thu Oct 06, 3:28 pm

http://www.irishweatheronline.com/news/earth-science/geology/health-defects-found-in-children-living-near-quake-stricken-fukushima-prefecture/40893.html

Exclusion Zone Set Up Around Indonesia’s Anak Krakatau (Child of Krakatoa)

By MARK DUNPHY – Fri Oct 07, 2011

On July 31, 2011, a wispy ash plume rose above the volcano and drifted west (up in the below image). The natural-colour satellite image was acquired by the Advanced Land Imager (ALI) aboard Earth Observing-1 (EO-1). Dark gray areas of Anak Krakatau are composed principally of lava flows deposited in the 1970s, ’80s, and ’90s. These flows are topped by a young cinder cone near the center of the island. Green vegetation covers older lavas along the eastern coastline.  Image NASA. Instrument:  EO-1 – ALI

On July 31, 2011, a wispy ash plume rose above the volcano and drifted west (up in the below image). The natural-colour satellite image was acquired by the Advanced Land Imager (ALI) aboard Earth Observing-1 (EO-1). Dark gray areas of Anak Krakatau are composed principally of lava flows deposited in the 1970s, ’80s, and ’90s. These flows are topped by a young cinder cone near the center of the island. Green vegetation covers older lavas along the eastern coastline. Image NASA. Instrument: EO-1 – ALI

Anak Krakatau’s alert level has been raised to the second-highest level after the number of volcanic tremors soared from 200 a day to 7,200.  A 2-kilometre exclusion zone has also been established around the Indonesian volcano prohibiting tourists and fishermen from getting close to the volcanic island, located in the Sunda Strait between the islands of Java and Sumatra in Indonesia.

Indonesia’s Volcanology and Geology Disaster Mitigation Centre has expressed concern that an eruption could send incandescent rocks down its slopes and a considerable distance into surrounding waters.  The Center indicated, however, that a major eruption like that experienced in 1883 is unlikely.

Anak Krakatau, which is Indonesian for ‘Child of Krakatoa’, erupted briefly on Tuesday sending columns of ash and rock hurtling high into the air. The eruption was the biggest since January 2011 when ash was emitted more than 600 m into the air, forcing the evacuation of tens of thousands of residents. The volcano also erupted on 29th October 2010 leading Indonesian authorities to issue a level 2 alert.

The island exploded in 1883, killing approximately 40,000 people, although some estimates put the death toll much higher. The explosion is considered to be the loudest sound ever heard in modern history, with reports of it being heard nearly 3,000 miles (4,800 km) from its point of origin. The shock wave from the explosion was recorded on barographs around the globe.

http://www.irishweatheronline.com/news/earth-science/geology/exclusion-zone-set-up-around-indonesias-anak-krakatau-child-of-krakatoa/41012.html